A while back a friend asked me, “You’re a coach — explain the difference between a habit and a routine.”
I was stymied. Truth was I didn’t have a good answer top of mind. In her question I realized I often conflated the two when I thought about them. I used the words interchangeably. I eagerly encouraged clients to create ‘better habits’ even though what they really were doing was setting up different routines. I hadn’t taken the time to parse out the difference between a habit and a routine.
Was there a difference? Did knowing the difference change focus and behavior? And thus improve the outcome for a better life?
A Google search produced innumerable articles and blog posts many of which appeared to do the same thing I did — conflate the two concepts. Those that did make a distinction still left me confused between a habit I have and a routine I’ve implemented.
So I decided to begin at the beginning — with the words themselves. Looking at the etymology of habit and routine began to explain the differences.
What’s in the words?
Habit is defined by Merriam-Webster as:
— a settled tendency or usual manner of behavior
— an acquired mode of behavior that has become nearly or completely involuntary (emphasis mine)
The word derives from the Latin words habere meaning ‘have, consist of’ and habitus meaning ‘condition appearance’. The term originally meant ‘dress, attire,’ (particularly religious attire) later coming to denote a physical or mental constitution.
The word steadily declined in usage beginning in the 1930/40s through about 2000 when there was an uptick in usage not surprisingly as the self-development movement began to kick-off in full force.
Routine on the other hand is defined by Merriam-Webster as:
— habitual or mechanical performance of an established procedure the routine of factory work
— a worked-out part (as of an entertainment or sports contest) that may be often repeated
— a reiterated speech or formula
The word comes from the French word route meaning ‘road’ and the English word ‘route’. By the late17th century the words had commingled and developed into the word routine denoting a regular course or procedure. Its usage has been on a steady upswing since about 1900.
Ok, but now what?
That’s great you say. But I still don’t know the *real* difference between a habit and a routine. In the last few years, there’s been a ton of behavioral research on habits and routines — with more needed.
Today, I think of a Habit as a behavior we do automatically without thinking about it. According to Dr. BJ Fogg, a behavior psychologist and director of the Stanford Behavior Design Lab and one of the most well-known researchers on habits, there is an emotional payout with a habit.
We engage in habits because there is some kind of payoff. They give us pleasure — sometimes only temporary — but nonetheless we get some physical or emotional pleasure from engaging in the habit. Sometimes the habit payout is physical — we work out, our bodies look better. Other times the habit has an emotional payout — we develop a habit of reading, we feel better about ourselves.
It does need to be noted that not all habits are beneficial — think drug habits, alcohol habits or watching TV habits — but even in these cases there is a pleasure payout — if only momentarily.
Routines on the other hand are a set of behaviors in a particular order that we do with some frequency but not automatically.
Generally routines aren’t thought of as ‘fun’ or ‘pleasurable’ but they make our lives better — things like doing laundry or backing up your computer. Both are done on a frequency basis but not automatically — and neither would be characterized as fun.
Often routines don’t directly improve our lives. But, I’d argue, routines can help us avoid disaster and unpleasantness at some future time. Doing laundry keeps us from losing friends because we smell bad and backing up our computer saves us the unpleasantness of losing files.
Dr. BJ Fogg has argued that designing and individualizing great routines can lead to significant personal growth but more work needs to be done to better understand routines and how our brain processes and manages them.
Most of the self-development literature is focused on habits; but I think the real work comes when we focus on routines. I see a lot of self development potential for many clients when they focus on designing the best routines. If I can get clients to *think* about their routines and design them for their individual use — there’s potential for great growth.
Charles Duhigg has written extensively about the interplay between habits and routines in his bestseller, The Power of Habit.
[An aside: Though Duhigg’s followup bestseller, Smarter Faster Better is primarily about productivity, it does cover habits and routines. You can’t cover productivity without getting into habits and routines.]
The illustration below from the Stanford University’s Game Design Thinking Research Group is based upon Duhigg’s, The Power of Habit:
For the purposes of this post, I want to focus on routines. Like Dr. Fogg, I believe this is where we can create immediate personal growth.
Begin with Your Routines
Most of the articles, books and blog posts that pop up focus on the development of morning routines. I’m all for a strong morning routine and follow a fairly formalized morning routine myself — but I’d suggest that thinking about routines more broadly throughout your day can propel more growth.
For instance, do you have a routine for handling emails? For handling frequent and repetitive client requests? For managing breakfast, lunch and dinner at your house? Do you have an evening routine? Is there a time of your day you regularly get derailed? Can you develop a new routine to help minimize the train crash?
Given what we do know, here are my tips and some suggested steps you can implement today to design better routines.
1. Be clear and specific about the routine you want to implement or the area of your life you want to routinize.
For example, say you want to read more. Get clear about those specifics. Just saying you want to ‘read more’ is too vague. This vagueness will easily allow your mind to slither out of the routine on days you’re stressed, in a bad mood, preoccupied or tired. So before you go further — get specific.
Do you want a routine that’s daily? Weekly? Monthly? What is realistic for you? Will it be measured by time: 30 minutes a day? 3 hours a week? Or do you want to set a number of pages to read: 10 pages per day? 1 chapter a week? 2 books a month? Do you have an overall end goal: 3 books per quarter? 100 books by the end of the year?
I know you’re feeling overwhelmed with all these questions, but taking time now to answer them will help you implement a great routine that you can stick with.
2. Know your Purpose.
Research studies show that when people have a why — when their routine is part of a bigger purpose or mission in life— they are more likely to stick with the routine.
For example, if you want to read more — ask yourself why do you want to read more? What do you want to achieve with your reading?
Hopefully, it’s not just to tally up a large number of books and impress your friends with your book count. As impressed as they may be when you announce at the annual New Year’s Eve party that you read 157 books that year — this grand feat will only be truly impressive if your reading adds power to your overall purpose.
Take a moment to revisit your goals to understand how this new routine will advance your overall purpose. If your new routine doesn’t advance your purpose, it’s unlikely you’ll stick with it over the long haul.
3. Break the routine into component parts and have your accoutrements ready.
[Don’t you love the word accoutrements?] Routines sound simple but the truth is they can be complex systems — especially if you’re trying to set up a new one. We humans are hardwired to stick with the tried and true — even if it’s bad for us. Your mind is going to want to go back to what it knows. If you’re able to break down the new routine into the smallest possible elements, you are more likely to see success.
For example, if you want to read more:
- Have a group of books readily available
- Know where you do your best reading
- Schedule (non-negotiable) your reading in your planner
- Set-up the reading materials you need.
I always want pens, 4×6 notecards, pink markers and post-it flags available. I keep my reading accoutrements in a basket that I grab when I’m ready to read. Having my little basket always available gives me fewer excuses to get side tracked when it’s time to read. It’s also a gentle reminder when I see the little basket that I’m taking this new routine seriously.
What are the component parts to your new routine. Write them out on a list — arrange them in an order that will work for you and begin to set yourself up for success. What accoutrements will you need?
Spend as much time planning your new routine as you do choosing a new restaurant.
4. Set up a process you’ll enjoy.
If you don’t enjoy the process of your routine — science says its highly unlikely you’ll stick with the routine over the long haul. So, make it fun.
For example, if you want to read more have a list of books you’re attracted to. Choose your books like you choose your dates or your restaurants — match your interests, your style, your wavelength. Find books you’re attracted to. Have more than one book available. If you’ve been following me, you know I strongly advocate having several different books ready to read.
Plus, make sure the environment you’re working in works for you. In this example, it’s not just about the ‘right’ book — the process also includes finding the best reading location. I recommend you have several. I’ve got several favorite spots where I read. Finding the right location for anything — reading, workouts, dinner with friends — can have a tremendous impact on the success of the endeavor.
If you don’t like the workout club you belong to, you’re not going to make the trip to the gym. So be mindful of the location where you’re going to build your new routine.
5. Set up compelling triggers within the process wherever you’re in danger of ditching the habit.
Most of us focus on setting up a trigger or cue to start a routine — I think we also need triggers we can use in the middle of our routines. Given human nature, until our routine becomes a habit, we’re in danger of letting our minds default to the path of least resistance — so have multiple triggers built into the routine that will help you stick with it.
When I started my exercise routine several years ago — I put my shoes and workout clothes on the floor right next to my bed so I tripped over them when I swung out of bed. When my feet landed on my workout cloths — it was an immediate trigger to go do a workout.
I also set up my coffee machine the night before so all I had to do was flip the switch. I guarantee you that if I’d had to put water in the machine, measure out the coffee, find my cup and then flip the switch — there would have been many a morning I would have just given up on the workout.
Plus, I made sure I had a podcast loaded on my phone the night before so I wouldn’t get sidetracked in the morning. Having a podcast I *really* wanted to hear during my workout was one of the best triggers I implemented in my new routine.
As silly as it sounds, these small triggers — my feet hitting my workout clothes, flipping the coffee switch and the podcasts waiting — were key to my success with my workout routine. These triggers made it less likely that I’d scrap my routine on those mornings I just wanted to stay in bed. Small triggers throughout the process can be significant when building a new routine.
6. Schedule the new routine in writing — and leave enough time.
After you’ve identified a specific routine you’d like to implement — write it down in your planner, journal or whatever mechanism you have to keep yourself accountable for your goals. Write it down where it’s front and center.
When you add your routine to your scheduler — be sure to leave enough time for the routine. In the beginning, you don’t want to rush your new routine. Rushing the new routine will make it negative — and none of us want to do things we find negative.
Think of your new routine like a gourmet meal — you wouldn’t want to rush through a beautiful plate of food — don’t rush through that new routine that’s going to bring more beauty into your life.
7. Measure your results and have an accountability mechanism and a partner.
I like data so I keep track of the results of any new routine in my planner and journal. Measuring my results also allows me to see other elements that might be impacting my new routine.
By tracking my daily reading, I noticed that reading at the end of the day was less successful. When I switched my reading to first thing in the morning or after a break of some sort (nap or exercise) I got more read and remembered it.
But, as useful as data is, for most of us, we also need a human element to our accountability system — a mentor, coach, mastermind group, trusted friend. Having someone you don’t want to disappoint can be indispensable for keeping you accountable.
8. Set up a reward system for yourself as you begin to build your routine.
Behavior research has shown that it’s important that we mark our wins with rewards. How you measure yourself is up to you but be sure to pick a measurement and a reward that will motivate you and mean something.
Using time as a marker to measure a new routine is common. Set up a reward system if you maintain a routine for 2 weeks, 1 month, 2 months, etc. Or, use a consecutive time marker to generate a reward. If you read 10 pages of a book every day for 10 consecutive days you get a reward. You can’t collect your reward until you have 10 consecutive days reading 10 pages of a book.
Whatever you choose, make the reward meaningful and escalate the reward as you improve on your routine. Be sure to take a few minutes to bask in the glory of your success.
Final thoughts on designing great routines:
— It’s all about you.
There’s a ton of behavioral research on routine design that you can learn by reading the likes of of BJ Fogg and Charles Duhigg but in the end you need to design the routine subtleties that will work for you. Treat yourself like you treat your clients. Make it work for you.
— Think outside the box and experiment.
Give your routine a chance — but be willing to make tweaks. Sometimes it’s the smallest change that can make a difference. For example, several years ago when I decided I wanted to read more I also determined that I was going to only use a pink highlighter. This may sound crazy but making that determination and investing in a box of pink pens made it easier for me to stick with my new routine.
— Trust your gut.
How does it feel to you? Routines you hate — exercise you can’t stand or books you don’t want to read — will never be successful and will set you back, so check your gut. Make sure you’re not weaseling out of a routine because you got lazy or it got hard, but make sure it’s a routine you really want to implement, too.
— Eliminate distraction and stay in the driver’s seat.
When you start working on a new routine be aware that your mind is going to want to go back to what it knows best so it’s going to be looking for distractions to get you to stop with the ‘new thing.’ It’s important to understand that your mind doesn’t like to work too hard — that requires energy — so wherever your brain can save energy by going back to the tried and true — it will.
— Mark your wins — even the smallest ones.
Don’t hesitate to celebrate your wins. If celebrating your wins is hard for you, ask you accountability partner to help you. And on those days you’re discouraged — go back to your purpose; think about the overall reason you’re undertaking this new routine. The new routine is intended to help you achieve a greater purpose and improve your life — and thus, the lives of those around you.
If you want to delve further into the world of routines (and habits) there are lots of books available. I invite you to consider the following:
- The Power of Habit by Charles Duhigg
- Smarter Faster Better by Charles Duhigg
- Drive by Daniel Pink
- Managing Your Day to Day: Build Your Routine, Find Your Focus, and Sharpen Your Creative Mind (The 99U Book Series) by Jocelyn Glei
If You’re Looking for Some Fiction
If you’re looking for a novel that tackles routines and habits and shows us how they calm jangled nerves and improve our sense of well-being, take a look at Mark Hatton’s bestselling novel, The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time.
Fifteen year old, Christopher John Francis Boone is many things. On the surface he’s a math whiz with behavioral challenges. It’s difficult for Christopher to connect with others — especially after he spots the neighbor’s dog, Wellington stretched out on the front lawn speared by a garden fork.
It’s a challenge navigating Christopher’s world on the best days, but now with Wellington’s demise it gets worse. Routines help Christopher and by the end of the novel we’re in a hopeful place. I know it’s a novel — but there are some useful lessons on how routines can help us navigate when we’re feeling stressed and overwhelmed in an uncooperative world.
To be the first to get the latest posts and free resources, sign up below for our weekly newsletter, Footnotes for You. This weekly newsletter always has extra free content that’s not on the blog!